Introduction to Migration
The movements of individuals and families from one area to another internally or internationally is said to be migration. Migration can be classified in to several categories based on the purpose of movements. It can be done in two mian ways internally as well externally with the main target in search of better economic opportunities or housing. Forced migrations involve people who have been expelled by governments during war or other political upheavals or who have been forcibly transported as slaves or prisoners. In respect with the previous migrations human migrations have transformed the entire aspect of lands and continents and the racial, ethnic, and linguistic composition of their populations. Basically there are different types of migrations such as Internal migration, External migration, Emigration, Immigration, return migration and seasonal migration. Internal migration defines with the movement that takes place within a state, country or a continent. External migration refers the movement to a different state or country. There are specific pull and push factors that lead to movement of persons. The specific purposes such as gaining safety, stability freedom and in the perspective of getting high wages and job prospects, availability of food and better environment helps to fulfill the reason of migrations. Most prominently labor migration and skilled migration emerges in order to satisfy and maintain the economic stability personally.
Emergence of Skilled Migration
Skilled migrants are the individuals crossing the international borders seeking to enter another state based on concepts of skills and education. The state is the real power-wielder as regards conceptualisation of highly skilled migrants when granting them entry to its territory either through specific highly-skilled immigration streams or programs for economic migration.The shape of real word migration streams is chosen considering the best and the brightest international talent who is well skilled to complete the work sector of the country. When defining highly skilled migrants, the academic literature overwhelmingly perpetuates the educational, skill and income criteria within a labour-market oriented view of this migration flow. While questioning, who is skilled migrant? Skilled migrations refers generally to the stream of migrant, i.e. foreign workers sharing specific characteristics and who therefore qualify for a particular visa category of each country. The most obvious starting place to define highly skilled is either by the level of education (Borjas 2005; Docquier and Marfouk 2006; Peri and Sparber 2011) or by classification of occupation (Bouvier and Simcox 1995; Espenshade et al. 2001; Libaers 2014). Skilled migrant is a person with tertiary(university-level)education. Development economists interested in questions of brain drain have used data sets on international skilled migration, which defined skilled immigrants as foreign-born workers with university or post-secondary training.
The Notions of Skill
The migrant categories are defined by the interest of the state considering the needs of labour market in a particular country whereas the knowledge is compared witn the source that matches the labour market. Most importantly, members of the public seem to believe that the skilled migrants fill in a gap on the labour market and are less likely to replace domestic workers, thus not representing direct competition. The knowledge of the skilled migrants implicitly emerged fulfilling and maintaing the sustainable development and economic stability whilst explicitly the growth of economic states emerges in the particular development.The idea of international labour markets resonates with the vision of the global labour market within which the highly skilled can move more freely than other migrants.
Skilled Migration to Australia
Skilled migrants specifically finds interest in moving to Australia finding opportunities to apply for a permanent or provisional state nominated visa depending on their occupation and situation.
Skilled migrants in these days are allowed to live and work in Australia following to get a permanent residency.
Why Do I Have to Choose Australia?
Australia offers skilled migrants a relaxed, safe, family-friendly lifestyle where you can achieve true work-life balance, centrally located on mainland Australia. It boasts pristine natural landscapes and a beautiful climate that presents residents with great opportunities. The work force stream of Australia provide opportunity for high skilled migrants to grow up in their career and in the field of entrepreneurship. The talent and innovators program of Australian government allows the migrants under five streams such as employment stream, Outer Regional South Australia workforce stream,Start up and small business stream, High performing graduate stream and Independent talent stream. The employment stream is for the highly skilled migrants who are working for South Australian businesses, making significant contribution to the Australian economy and supplement the supply of skilled workers available to businesses and industries. Skilled migrants tend to play the role to create a successful carrier which brings high participation in work forces.Outer Regional South Australia workforce stream is for the skilled migrants to start up a new business in the fields of creative industry, defence industry, energy and mining, food, wine and agri business, Health &medical industries, International education, space industries and in tourism sectors. The government has developed many policies designed to target migrants with experience in areas where there is a skill shortfall through its general skilled migrations.
Contribution of Men and Women to the Australian Labour Market
Men and women being the prominent factors for the contribution of skilled knowledge to the Australian labour market help stimulates the economic growth and job growth in the region. There are economic benefits gained by the skilled migration of men and women whereas the skilled knowledge transferred from their motherland to Austrialia. Involving the skilled knowledge to the global target helps to facilitate the adoption of new technologies, raise productivity and increase income per capita. Studies have also
indicated that women are less mobile than men in the sense that they are more likely to work closer to home and are less likely to commute for longer distances (Hanson, 2010), confirming the gender discourse that typically associates masculinity with mobility and movement, while femininity is linked with immobility and staying close to home.
Skilled occupation list of men and women are classified in to four sectors such as Short-Term Skilled Occupation List,Medium and Long-Term Strategic Skills List and Regional Occupation List. While considering the gender equality in Australia, the women’s role is certainly changing. Women bring superior educational qualifications and great ambition to their jobs. They account for a majority of work performed in many important, growing industries – including caring services like health care, community services, and education. Women’s pay has been inching up towards men’s, but the gender gap is still surprisingly large – and the most commonly-cited statistics on the pay gap don’t tell the whole story. Increasing women’s workforce participation leads to better living standards for individuals and families, improves the bottom line of businesses and is a significant driver of national economic growth. The main goal of of the skilled migrants declares the economic growth growth and decent work as mutually reinforcing, and has resolved to create conditions for sustainable, inclusive and sustained prosperity. It is of utmost importance to the significant number of low-skilled migrant workers in often exploitative working conditions and low-waged jobs, particularly in the case of migrant workers in an irregular situation working in the informal economy. The Agenda of 2030 for sustainable development and migrant workers deals with creating goals of ending poverty in all its form everywhere, achieving gender equality and empower all women and girls, Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels and Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development.
Australian skilled migration visas gives high skilled migrants to permanently move to Australia to fill shortages in the Australian workforce. A successful applicant will be entitled to work and live (and study) in Australia permanently. migrants to permanently move to Australia to fill shortages in the Australian workforce. A successful applicant will be entitled to work and live (and study) in Australia permanently.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Skilled Migrations
Australia provides opportunities to all those are skilled migrants with its culturally diverse and growing economy. The main benefits are the emergence of job opportunities, creating a freedom to work, geographical surroundings, excellent culture and quality living standards. Because of the availability of huge natural resources and the rapidly evolving economy, it is a suitable country for entrepreneurs and investors.
Job opportunities are the foremost advantage to a skilled migrant where the job vacancies are fulfilled and the economic stability is maintained. Considering the pros and cons of Australia, the pros are good quality health care in Australia, Excellent Australian education system, freedom of speech and religion, security, employment provision, and respect for every one.
The cons of the skilled migrants are language barrier, expensive life style, and difficulties in travelling. The language barrier can be the hardest thing that you may face when migrating overseas. While Australia is definitely a multicultural society, the official language spoken is English but the migrants from different countries face difficulties due to migrating from the home lands.
There are various ways in which migration and population growth linked to reach productivity, as a result it deals with supply of labour, composition of labour supply, sectoral reallocation of economic activity, government expenditure on services, transfer payments and taxation and international trade and technology transfer.The overall outcome depends on the sum of the contributions and is essentially an empirical matter
The impact of skilled migration gives a projected effect of migration on labour supply, skill composition of the work force which refers to the change in the average skill level of workers by changing the proportion of workers in each skill category, such as by educational attainment and occupation. Highly skilled workers are generally more productive who are likely to earn high wages than less skilled workers. Consequently, increasing the proportion of skilled workers in the workforce contributes to an increase in labour value added per capita and income per capita.
The effects of increased skilled migration differ across the states and territories because their sectoral composition varies and skilled migration affects the sectors differently. For example, mining and agriculture are relatively more important to the Western Australian economy than other states and territories. These two sectors are relatively capital intensive and export oriented.
Australia’s Emerging Skill-: Home for Skill Development
In accordance with the development of skills in order to be a well skilled migrant trending skills are acceptable to this century , where as it is advisable to be ready with trending skills in data analysis,enterprise resource planning, and data management. Data and digital skills are the fastest growing emerging skills. These include skills such as software orchestration/automation, artificial intelligence, data analysis, cyber security and online marketing. Many emerging and trending skills help people transfer from one job to another. The trends in migration flows worldwide and the factors driving these trends are considered, such examples are increased economic integration, increased information flows and improved transport links, globalisation of labour markets development of commercialised immigration industries, proliferation of social networks and diasporas around the world, changed migration policy, particularly with respect to skilled migration. They have also led to changes in the nature of migration flows, with diversification of countries of origin, increased temporary migration flows and an emphasis on skilled migration. Based on the modelling, the effect of increasing the skilled migration intake on Australia’s per capita living standards is broadly neutral to mildly positive. The increased-migration simulation reveals that, by 2024-25, annual income per capita is about $383 (or about 0.71 of per cent) higher than it would otherwise have been under current migration settings. The absolute size of the economy also grows — with GDP projected to be about 4.6 per cent larger than otherwise by 2024-25. National income is projected to increase by 4 per cent by 2024-25, relative to the base case scenario. This result is consistent with other Australian studies that have concluded that the overall economic effects of immigration to be modest.
As the impediments to productivity and economic growth from migration, In Australia, there are no fundamental legislative or other impediments to realising the potential economic gains from migration and population growth. Australia’s migration selection policy has been successful in raising the general skill level of immigrants and improving both their labour market outcomes and productivity. Changes to the migration selection criteria have improved the English language skills of immigrants. – Poor English language skills remain a significant impediment to the successful integration of migrants into Australia’s labour market where as Australia being a successful land for skilled migrants for both men and women.